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Change URL structure:
Directories "en" and "es" etc. can each be created on the web server with separate LocalSettings.php but the other files all symlinked from the base of a common wiki installation.
The "index.php" part need not matter so much. It's Latin and the reader is "looking something up." There will be separate databases, or at least separate tables in the same database. Why not?
Needs more experimentation ...
- This is the family of wikis approach, which is probably the best.
- There is also a Translate extension that provides multilingual support in one wiki, which seems useful as a bridge to full support for a new wiki language.
This is not a HOWTO. Do not try this at home. Refer to official sources for instructions. Caveat: that is a wiki, too, and those are not precise instructions either, but general ideas with advantages and disadvantages.
Consult the User's Guide for information on using the wiki software.